List of Animals that Often Used For Experiments

List of Animals that Often Used For Experiments – Animals are one of the objects most often used in experiments, this is due to the similarity of animal organs to humans.

Each year, more than 100 million animals are killed in the laboratory, based on data from the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animal (PETA). They are sacrificed for various scientific purposes.

Ethically, these animal-sacrificing experiments are often opposed, especially by activists. However, this is often done for the sake of human survival. Starting from drug trials, vaccines, to research on certain diseases.

Unless, if the experiment is carried out for the manufacture of cosmetics, skincare, fashion, and other product lines that are not an urgent need. Animal testing in this line can be replaced by other processes that do not sacrifice them.

Another case in the manufacture of vaccines or drugs. These chemicals are unlikely to be tested directly on humans because the risks and side effects are unknown. Therefore, researchers gave it to the animals first to see how they would react.

Seeing how great the sacrifice it is to human beings, we must know what animals are commonly involved in scientific experiments. Here are some of them!

1. Rat

Data from the Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR) shows that 95 percent of the animals in the laboratory are mice, either black or white. They usually look for reactions to infections, diseases, vaccine tests, drugs, and other medical things.

There are several things that cause scientists to often use mice as experimental objects. First is the reason for convenience. Rats are small, easy to care for, and adaptable to the laboratory environment. In addition, they are cheap, non-aggressive and easy to breed.

Another reason why mice are often used in science experiments is that their genetic characteristics are similar to humans. Starting from body processes, organ systems, to the diseases they experience. This suitability can be used to answer a variety of research questions.

2. Rabbit

The next lab animal is rabbits, especially albino rabbits. These long-eared animals are commonly used for procedures that involve pain. For example, when testing the safety of drugs and medical devices or to measure the level of toxicity of chemicals.

To perform all of these procedures, rabbits are often tortured, poisoned, disabled, or even dead. Because it was considered torturing animals, in the 70s to 80s, animal lover groups proposed that experiments were carried out outside the biological environment (outside the animal’s body).

3. Dog

This pet is also used in science experiments. According to the American Anti-Vivisection Society (AAVS) website, dogs are often used to research heart disease, lung disease, cancer and orthopedics.

The reason scientists use dogs so much is that drugs and vaccines usually have to be tested on rodents and not rodents. This is to get a more accurate test result.

The breed of dog that is commonly used is the beagle because of its medium size and not being aggressive. They have been bred specifically for laboratory use and are usually less than one year old.

Also Read:Dangerous Science Experiments With The Most Deaths

4. Primates

There is no doubt that primates are the animals most genetically similar to humans. However, these characteristics make it have advantages and disadvantages to be used as laboratory animals.

The advantage is that almost all primate organs and body systems are the same as humans. Digestive organs, metabolic system, brain, and the diseases they experience are quite similar to humans. If they are used for disease research and drug testing, the results can be more accurate.

On the other hand, primates have a high awareness of the world and of themselves because of their fairly developed brains. Whereas the main condition of animals used for experiments is that they must have a low awareness of the world, such as mice, dogs and rabbits.

However, because primate samples are needed, they are still involved in the laboratory. For example, for the manufacture of drugs and vaccines, transplant tests, to research on various chronic diseases. The types of primates that should not be used for experiments are gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzees.…

Dangerous Science Experiments With The Most Deaths

Dangerous Science Experiments With The Most Deaths – The science experiment is one of the most dangerous experiments known to be, but it is able to improve the lives of people all over the world in immeasurable ways.

Unfortunately, science is also a very powerful tool that has the potential to become dangerous in some situations, for example when involved in interests such as politics.

In fact, there are also some science experiments that make everyone’s heart pound. Here’s a list of the most dangerous science experiments in history!

1. The MKUltra project

Launching Big Think, the first most dangerous science experiment is the MKUltra Project. This project was the CIA’s attempt to master mind control. This program started in the 1950s and appears to last until 1966. Under MKUltra, people who become guinea pigs are given drugs, especially hallucinogens such as LSD.

Not only that, but the people who were tested were also subjected to hypnosis, sexual harassment, and other types of psychological abuse. The intended goal of the MKUltra Project was a combination of chemical weapons research and efforts to create a mind-control drug to fight the Soviets.

2. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

A US government-funded “study” from 1932 to 1972 turned down treatment to 399 African-American patients in rural Alabama who had syphilis. Even though in 1947, penicillin was found which was proven to be effective against syphilis.

Nor were patients actually told that they had syphilis. The aim of the experiment, conducted by the US Public Health Service, is to study the natural progression of syphilis if left untreated. As a result, 28 people in the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment died directly from syphilis while 100 others died from related complications.

The Kola Superdeep Borehole is a Soviet experiment that began in 1970. This experiment attempts to drill as deep as possible into the planet’s crust. In 1994, they bore a hole 12 km deep into the Kola Peninsula in Russia’s northwestern tip. Excavated records provide a wealth of scientific data, such as the discovery of microscopic fossils of ancient plankton from 24 species.

Although nothing negative happened, there was concern at the time that drilling into the center of the earth so deep could produce unexpected seismic effects, such as opening up the planet. Currently, the hole site has been closed.

4. Guatemalan STD study

This gruesome experiment is another example of a science experiment by the United States government that costs money in the pursuit of “science.” From 1945 to 1956, about 1500 Guatemalans were intentionally infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis and gonorrhea.

The subjects of this experiment were orphans, convicts, prostitutes, and conscripts. Researchers used disease-infected prostitutes, injections, and other immoral methods to make their subjects sick. The experimental subject is currently suing John Hopkins University for US $ 1 billion for his role in the research.

Also Read:America’s Cruel Experiments on Prisoners

5. The Aversion Project

Citing Public Health, the medical torture program which was instituted in South Africa between 1971 and 1989 aims to “cure” homosexuality in military service. The medical community at the time believed widely that homosexuality was a mental illness that could be cured.

Dr. Aubrey Levin, who was in charge of the program as South Africa’s chief military psychiatrist, was eventually charged with human rights abuses by an international organization and received a prison sentence.

6. Nazi Concentration Camp Experiments

The Nazis conducted medical experiments on thousands of prisoners in concentration camps, regardless of human life. Some of the “research” they conducted such as inducing hypothermia, infecting people with malaria, using mustard gas, forced sterilization, giving different poisons to prisoners, as well as infecting wounds with bacteria and filling them with wood shavings.

Nazi doctor Josef Mengele was the prototype “evil scientist”, known for his concentration camp experiments, with a special focus on twins, mostly Jews or Romans. Instead of studying heredity, doctor Mengele was responsible for atrocities such as organ harvesting from people without anesthesia, injections with lethal bacteria, cutting and others.…

America’s Cruel Experiments on Prisoners

America’s Cruel Experiments on Prisoners – Some of the articles that we will provide are articles that we summarize from trusted sources, the following are articles that discuss America’s cruel experiments on prisoners.

All the scientific advances that we have today were not taken for granted, many things were sacrificed by both the researcher and the experimental object. History records that inmates are one of the groups that often participate in scientific, medical, and social experiments.

Sometimes, they don’t voluntarily become the object of the experiment. Not a few prisoners were trapped and forced to participate. Worse, the experiments they participated in were sometimes cruel and jeopardized personal safety. The following are 5 sadistic science experiments involving inmates.

1. Spread the plague to prisoners

During the Second World War, many American soldiers contracted diseases common in the tropics. Malaria, diarrhea, beriberi, dengue fever, and various tropical diseases are big problems that must be addressed. Many doctors and researchers are racking their brains to find a cure for these various diseases.

At that time, America was colonizing the Philippines, and this was seen as an opportunity to conduct medical experiments. One of the doctors then spread cholera to inmates in a Philippine prison. Not long after that, the prisoners in the prison became infected with cholera and developed diarrhea and severe dehydration. This experiment resulted in the loss of 13 inmate lives.

In a book entitled “Why Doctors Kill: Why, Who, and How”, it is stated that the goal of this experiment is not to spread disease, but to better understand the disease. In the end, this experiment was exposed and investigated by the authorities. This experiment received a lot of criticism and was considered immoral by various parties.

2. Nuclear radiation experiments

In 1994, Bill Clinton, the then president of America, issued a press release regarding the nuclear radiation experiments that had been carried out over the past few years. This experiment aims to see the extent of the effects of nuclear radiation on the human body.

This experiment was carried out by the United States Atomic Energy Commission on several groups of people, including inmates. The experimental object is exposed to nuclear radiation beyond the proper limit, even reaching extreme levels. Nuclear radiation can weaken and break down DNA, and can lead to cancer in the long run.

Because this experiment damages the prisoners’ DNA, the risk of prisoners having children with disabilities is also increased. To overcome this, researchers decided to sterilize inmates, or in other words make prisoners infertile. How cruel is it!

3. Inject cow blood to inmates

This experiment may sound strange, but it did happen. In 1942, a researcher was asked to inject cow blood into the bodies of prisoners by the US Navy. Some sources say this experiment aims to develop biological weapons, other sources say this experiment aims to find new types of drugs. This experiment resulted in 64 inmate deaths.

Also Read:The Cruelest Psychological Experiment

4. Infect prisoners with pellagra disease

This experiment was carried out in 1915 at the Mississippi prison. A doctor named Joseph Goldberger wanted to see the link between poverty and pellagra. The hypothesis is that poor people have pellagra disease due to a deficiency of vitamin B3, which is commonly found in meat. With little money, the poor are less likely to be able to buy and consume meat.

To prove his hypothesis, Goldberger conducted experiments on prisoners at Rankin State Prison Farm. Not alone, Goldberger collaborated with the local governor to conduct this experiment. Eleven prisoners were selected and promised freedom if they were willing to be the object of research.

The study was conducted by providing a strict diet to prisoners. This diet contains a small amount of meat, milk, and vegetables. After 6 months of being on a diet, 5 inmates developed pellagra and the rest developed pellagra symptoms. Although his hypothesis was proven correct, Goldberger’s experiments were criticized and considered immoral.

5. Forcing inmates to eat feces

In the 1940s, many experiments were carried out to find the causes and treatment of diseases. One of the things that the researchers question is how bacteria can cause disease in the human body. There are 2 hypotheses that are believed by researchers, namely bacteria spread effectively through the air or through food that is ingested by humans.…

The Cruelest Psychological Experiment

The Cruelest Psychological Experiment –  Psychological Experiments are experiments that are quite rarely carried out by scientists compared to other experiments, but this psychological experiment is no less sadistic than other experiments.

Psychology is always interesting to discuss and study. Knowing human nature and how it is formed helps us understand ourselves and how the world and society work.

But did you know that in the process of acquiring these knowledge, there are often terrible experiments being carried out? Whether it’s the experiment on animals or humans themselves. The following is an inhuman psychological experiment that ever happened.

1. Electric shock therapy to children

This practice was common in the 1960s. One of them is by Dr. Lauretta Bender who works at Creedmore Hospital in New York. He selected the children who would be the subject of the experiment through interviews using the method of applying a small pressure to the heads of the children who were collected in a group.

Those who respond to that pressure are considered by Bender to be an early symptom of schizophrenia. By providing the electrocution method, Bender believed it was able to cure the children. There are at least 100 children who follow this therapy with the youngest children aged three years.

2. The Aversion Project

In the apartheid era of South Africa, Dr. Aubrey Levin was assigned the task of healing homosexuals. Thousands of homosexuals were imprisoned in the Voortrekkerhoogte military hospital.

There they found an electroconpulsive method to “cure” the homosexual condition. The practice was that these homosexual men were shown pictures of naked men and told to fantasize about it before finally getting electric shocks.

3. Experiment with facial expressions

University of Minnesota psychologist Carney Landis conducted a study in 1924 to determine facial expressions. Specifically, Landis wants to know the expression of someone who is happy, happy, afraid, sad, disgusted and others. He also recruited several students and gave them stimulants which would later photograph their faces.

The facial expression stimulants include pornography, ammonia, touching reptiles and beheading rats. One third of the participants were willing to behead the mice even though they did not know how to behead the right way. The rest refused, Landis himself beheaded the mice.

Also Read:Craziest Animal Experiments in History

4. Bobo Doll Experiment

Still the same in the 1960s, there was an experiment that aimed to demonstrate how children learn about a habit. The Albert Bandura experiment collected 72 children of school age with a large doll named Bobo.

Bandura shows adults who act cruelly to Bobo to the children and leave the children one by one alone with the doll. From there, the children began to torture Bobo, even in harsh conditions. Bandura did this research twice and got the same results.

5. Study of monsters

In 1939, 22 orphans living in Davenport, Iowa were subjected to psychological tests. To study the problem of stuttering, the 22 children were divided into two groups. The first group received positive speech therapy and was consistently praised for her speech skills.

The other group received negative speech therapy in which they received exclusion for any imperfect speech. The result was that those in the second group who at that time were still able to speak normally ended up having speech problems for the rest of their lives.…

Craziest Animal Experiments in History

Craziest Animal Experiments in History – Experiments are one of the common things that scientists often do, experiments using animals are one of the most frequently carried out experiments.

Experiments became commonplace. When scientists create something new, they will continue to experiment until they get the right results. It is not uncommon for these experiments to involve living things such as animals to be used as guinea pigs.

But what is called an experiment, it doesn’t always work. And when this experiment fails, then the victims are these animals. Sadly, it’s not uncommon for animals to die in painful ways because of these failed experiments. Here are eight of the craziest animal experiments ever!

1. Research on the sexual predisposition of turkeys

In the 1960s, two researchers from Pennsylvania State University conducted a study on sexual predisposition in a turkey. So when the mating season arrives, they put the imitation female turkey down and let the male turkey see it to see how the male is reacting.

Instead of refusing, the male turkey approached the female KW turkey and tried to mate with her. Do not stop there, these researchers began to take several parts of the female turkey gradually to determine the reaction of the male turkey.

Starting from taking the tail, legs, wings, and even the body, leaving only the head supported by wood. As a result, the feeling of the male turkey is still the same as before.

2. Lazarus project

Trying to revive a dead creature is an impossible job, even for today’s technology. But believe it or not, there was a researcher who tried it in the 1930’s. He is Robert E. Cornish, a researcher from the University of California, Berkeley.

Robert believes that he can revive a dead creature as long as the creature does not experience organ damage. The research began by making four dogs asphyxiated and then dying, and placing them in a strange machine that functions to circulate blood. In order for the experiment to be successful, Robert E. Cornish then injected a mixture of adrenaline and anticoagulant.

The result? Two of the four dogs died, while the other two managed to live for months with severe brain damage and blindness.

3. The closeness of humans and dolphins

As a rule, living things will mate with living creatures of the same species with it. But who would have thought that there are animals that have mated with humans. In 1967, dolphin researcher John Cunningham Lilly tried to teach dolphins to speak English.

First, Lilly transforms a room into a pool, then asks her assistant named Margaret to stay and teach a male dolphin named Peter English. As time went on, Peter became closer to Margaret, even Peter tried several times to marry Margaret.

For the sake of experimentation, Lilly asks Margaret to fulfill Peter’s sexual needs. In the end, their relationship ended tragically. After the research was completed, Margaret left Peter and broke his heart, then ‘committed suicide’ by refusing to go up to the surface to take a breath.

4. Monkey head transplant

Although difficult, transplants are something that happens quite often nowadays. But it’s a different story if you go to 1963. Back then, transplants were not a common procedure, and researchers still wondered if they could do it?

To answer that question, a research team from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio beheaded two monkeys, and then transplanted the heads of the monkeys into other monkeys. Well, the monkey did manage to live again for one day with a paralyzed condition, before finally dying the next day.

5. Zombie paint

So far, we only know that zombies only exist in movies, but who would have thought that zombies had also lived in the real world. Don’t worry, this zombie is not a living corpse that will attack humans, but a dead cat that has been successfully ‘revived’. It is Karl August Weinhold, a researcher from Germany who believes that the human brain is like a battery which is attached by a set of ‘wires’ in the form of the nervous system.

To prove it, Karl then conducted an experiment in 1817. He killed a cat, and injected certain fluids into his body. For 20 minutes, the dead cat raised its head, opened its eyes, and even jumped around like a live cat.

6. The two headed dog

If the experiments conducted by Karl August had gone badly, it had nothing to do with what Charles Guthrie was doing. In 1908, this scientist from the United States killed a dog, cut off its head, then transplanted it to another dog. Guthrie did manage to create the world’s first two-headed dog, unfortunately the poor dog only lived for 26 minutes.…